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Chapter 4

Introduction to Quantitative Research


How Do Others See Quantitative Research?

Here’s a document with an overview of quantitative research design and the benefits and limitations of quantitative research from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 


Deductive Reasoning

This website has a good review of deductive reasoning.  


Hypotheses and Research Questions

Confused about the difference among hypothesis, null hypothesis, and a research question? Check out this website.

Need Help in Writing Quantitative Research Questions?

This is a great site and will help move you step by step through the process.



This website provides an excellent overview of the differences between independent and dependent variables. 

Operationalizing Variables

Check out this PowerPoint by Amanda Leggett to learn more about operationalizing variables and to practice your operationalization skills. Need some more help? Check out this QMSS website from the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. 

Updated August 5, 2020

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